BYWAYS, PAVING, & TRANSPORTATION CONSTRUCTS
ROAD BUILDING WITH STRATEZYME


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ROAD DESIGN
ROAD BUILDING
HAUL ROAD STABILIZATION
ROAD CONSTRUCTION
ASPHALT COVER OVER STRATEZYME
EQUIPMENT NECESSARY
APPLICATION GUIDELINES

Road construction under optimum conditions should consider the following:

1. Use materials that are structurally sound. Road base materials using STRATEZYME should have a gradation mix (size distribution) that will result in good load bearing values and contain approximately 18%-30% non-granular fines (-200 mesh sized) and be cohesive in nature. Often roads have material outside design standards. If you perform field tests prior to construction to determine suitability, you will obtain excellent results upon completion. Some clays and fines are silty in nature and are not useful for road construction. Excessive fines may cause problems as a result of high plasticity and/or low load value.

2. Proper moisture must be maintained during compaction. STRATEZYME works best between 2%-3% below optimum moisture. Do not compact above optimum moisture. After applying STRATEZYME to the road material to be treated, additional water may be applied to bring the moisture content to the optimum level prior to compaction

3. Generally, roads should not be compacted in lifts higher than 3”; however, the size and type of compaction equipment plus the type of material being compacted determine lift thickness. Sufficient compactive effort must be maintained during road construction to obtain maximum density. Less compactive effort will be required using STRATEZYME.

4. The STRATEZYME treated road should be allowed to cure prior to use (and final testing) if possible. However, the road may be used sooner if necessary. Drying of the base material will create less plasticity, decreased permeability and greater strength.

Step 1.

Blade or rip the existing road to a minimum depth of six inches and then windrow the loose material. If the road requires greater depth, work the material in lifts. If additional aggregate is needed, use less expensive material with more fines. Check the overall gradation of the material to insure it is within the design limits. The overall depth to be treated depends on the designed axle load requirements.

Step 2.

For each 165 cubic yards of road base material, use one gallon of STRATEZYME to the amount of water to obtain optimum moisture. Refer to the STRATEZYME work sheet for instructions. Spray both the bladed surface and the windrow to obtain optimum moisture. Blend the STRATEZYME treated material using a grader blade, working the soil and aggregate back and forth to blend in the STRATEZYME and water. If the material is too wet, then blade dry. If the material is too dry, add water without STRATEZYME to bring the material to the optimum moisture level. After thoroughly mixing, spread the material to grade. The treated road material may be left in a windrow overnight to allow complete moisture absorption. This will result in better compaction with less effort.

Step 3.

Extend and crown the road surface with the grader blade. If your material dried out on a hot day, spray again with a diluted STRATEZYME and water mixture (1 gallon STRATEZYME to 10,000 gallons water). Compact with a compactor such as a sheepsfoot or pneumatic roller. Vibratory rollers may be used for the first and second passes; however, further compaction should be done without vibrator action to avoid cracking. Compact in 3” of 8-cm lifts (layers) to insure maximum compaction.

After allowing the road surface to dry (cure) for 72 hours, it is ready for use. If an asphalt or chip and seal road top surface is desired, better bonding will be achieved by moistening the surface with a diluted application of STRATEZYME and water at a 1:10,000 dilution rate. This surface application may be applied any time after a 3-day period.


The foresight and tenacity which enabled the Stratezyme process to be developed and on the Global Market today- is the direct result of the collective years of experience, and dedication to this industry carried by our engineers and technicians. Their investment of time, effort, and the observations, which made this product possible, insures an attention to detail and on-site variables unmatched by those without a vested interest. This is the reason for our recommendation, that -Stratezyme Inc. road technicians and engineers are on-site for the initial constructs.


ROAD DESIGN

Where we present an introductory list of answers- prepared for Engineers- concerning New Construction, Substance Maintenance, and Surface Re-facing prerequisites


· Traffic loads (wheel weight and frequency of use)

· Availability of road building materials

· Topography and sub-base soil conditions (soft or firm)

· Moisture (rain, snow, ground water)

· Long-term use and maintenance requirements.

Soft sub-base conditions require greater thickness – in some cases as high as 24 inches (60 cm). Where the sub-base is firm a minimum thickness of 6 inches (15 cm) can be used. Roads with truck traffic require greater thickness to support the high wheel loads of 20,000-30,000 lbs. (9,000-13,000 kilos). Analysis of the sub-base conditions and testing for load bearing capacity may be required to achieve proper design specifications.

Traffic loads and speeds also affect the life of a road. In many instances a hard “wearing” surface cover is necessary. High-speed traffic increases the mechanical forces applied to the road surface. To prevent surface wear a protective cover such as asphalt, concrete or a chip and seal coat may be necessary.
Surface and sub-surface moisture conditions also enter into the equation for good road design. It is important that the road has adequate drainage and that the sub-base and road base be kept as dry as possible to prevent structural failure. Side drainage channels are important as is crowning the road surface to allow water to flow away from the road surface. Where ground water is near the surface it may be necessary to place a rock sub-base or other engineered treatment. It is up to the engineer to evaluate these conditions.

Road building materials also affect the design of a road. The type and properties of the material greatly affect the performance of a road. Well-graded gravel and soil give maximum performance. Cohesive fines enhance the performance of a road, producing less rutting and fewer potholes.

There are other factors to be considered. Civil Engineers qualified in road construction should be consulted for specific site conditions.


STRENGTH

The load that the wheel of the vehicle exerts on a gravel surface spreads out as it passes down through the road base. The angle of force, increasing in width as it penetrates deeper into the road material, is referred to as the internal angle of friction O. It varies depending upon the type of material present. The objective in road design is to have sufficient road base thickness to support anticipated wheel loads. STRATEZYME treated material has increased compressive strength that resists deformation and excessive flexing due to wheel loading. This stabilization results in an overall stronger road base. It also means less maintenance.


STRATEZYME

Calculations for Road Work

Important: First determine optimum moisture for road mix and actual road mix moisture.

 

 

       

Metric

English

  

 

Calculate

Example

Calculate

Example

A-

Width

Meters

8.00

Feet

25.00

B-

Length

Meters

1,000.00

Feet

5,280.00

C-

Depth

Meters

0.152

Feet

0.50

D-

Volume                        [ A x B x C ]

Cubic meter

1,216.00

 

66,000.00

E-

Volume (cubic yards)            [ D.27 ]

 

 

Cubic yard

2,444.44

F-

TOTAL STRATEZYME required

 

36.85

 

14.81

F1

33 cu M/liter 165 cu yd/gal

33 cu M/liter

 

165 cu yd/gal

 

G-

Soil Density

Kg /cubic meter

1,602.00

Lbs /cubic yard

2700.00

H-

Optimum Moisture (lab tested)

 

12.00%

 

12.00%

I-

Existing Soil Moisture (lab tested)

 

2.00%

 

2.00%

J-

Net Moisture to be Added (%)[ H – I ]

 

10.00%

 

10.00%

K-

Water to be Added              [ G x J ]

Kg / cu M

160.20

# /cu yd

270.00

L-

Water to be Added              [ K / L1 ]

L / cu M

160.20

Gal / cu yd

32.53

L1

1 K= 1 liter water  8.3 lb = 1 gal water

 

 

 

 

M-

Water to be Added        [ K x D {E} ]

Liters

 

Gal

79,518.07

Notes:

STRATEZYME required                              1 gallon = 3.785 liters

1 liter per 33 cubic meters                          1 cubic yard =0.7646 cubic meters

1 gallon per 165 cubic yards                        1 foot = 0.304 meters

1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet                        1 mile = 5,280 feet

1 kilogram = 1 liter water                             1 mile = 1.853 kilometers

1 gallon = 8.3 pounds water                        1 cubic meter = 1.08 cubic yards


 

ROAD BUILDING

STRATEZYME is easy to apply and requires neither special equipment nor special application procedures.  It can be used with either reclaiming machines or applied with regular road building machines.  STRATEZYME should be used with soils that contain approximately 20% cohesive fines.  Then it is mixed with water and used for compaction during normal road building techniques.  A typical application to stabilize a 6-inch existing or new road base is presented as follows:

1.      If the existing roadbed is too hard to blade, scarify to the required depth.  Normally this should be done dry for better traction.

 2.      Add one gallon of STRATEZYME concentrate to the required amount of water needed to bring 165 cubic yards of material up to optimum moisture.  The amount of water needed will depend on how wet or dry your material is.  With top loading water tanks, always fill the tank with water first, and then add the STRATEZYME.  Failure to do this will result in a tank full of foam.

 3.      Spray the STRATEZYME water solution over the road surface and start the blade mixing. 15 gallons of STRATEZYME will treat one mile 25 feet wide to a depth of 6 inches.  If you misjudged the water and get the material too wet, blade to dry.  If the material is too dry, add plain water.  After thoroughly mixing, leave the soil material in a windrow overnight to promote total STRATEZYME absorption.  We recommend this whenever possible for better compaction results with less effort.

 4.      If the road base is too dry the next morning, or after the material is thoroughly mixed and ready to lay, spray the surface with a STRATEZYME water mixture of one gallon to 10,000 gallons water (approximately one pint to 1,200 gallons water) before you pull it out of the windrow.  Always start to lay the material on a damp floor.  Pull the material out and lay in 3-inch lifts.  Start compaction immediately.  In sub-base fill or pond areas, a sheepsfoot works fine; but usually a steel or pneumatic roller works best for finished roads.  Continue compaction while you shape and dress the surface with a blade.  Be sure to crown the surface to promote water drainage. Even while laying and compacting, if your material dries too fast on a hot day, a light mist of STRATEZYME treated water (1:10,000 gallons) can be applied, but you must be sure to stay 2% to 3% below Optimum Moisture.  Continue to compact until the desired density is reached.  Vibratory rollers may be used, but turn the vibrator off when finishing so that no fracturing occurs.  The road is now ready for use.  If you foresee heavy, high-speed traffic, involving spinning or skidding wheels, you might consider closing the road until the material has had a chance to cure for 2 or 3 days.  Normal traffic will not harm it.

5.                  If an asphalt surface or other permanent-wearing surface is to be added, a better bond can be obtained by moistening the surface with a spray of STRATEZYME and water solution (1:10,000 gallons).  This permanent surface can be applied at any time after a 3-to-5-day curing period under good weather conditions.

HAUL ROAD STABILIZATION

Mine haul roads are often constructed with native site soils containing a wide gradation of materials.  Often there is a high content of fines (200 minus mesh) that in the past have caused stabilization problems.  STRATEZYME assists in binding fines together with larger material into a dense well-compacted material having a high degree of stabilization and higher tensile strength than non-treated roads.  Also, roads treated with STRATEZYME will resist water penetration.  Benefits include reduced maintenance and increased utilization of existing site materials.     

STRATEZYME provides:

·        efficient use of water due to easier penetration into the soil—base material      

·        achievement of greater density after compaction

·        increase in tensile strength

·        unconfined compressive strength

·        less dusting than non-treated roads

ROAD CONSTRUCTION

One gallon of STRATEZYME will treat 165 cubic yards of road base material.  It is added to the water truck and sprayed onto the material prior to compaction.

The water to STRATEZYME ratio will vary depending upon site conditions and existing moisture in the base material.

 Construction of the road should be done in lifts not greater than 6” – depending upon the type of compaction equipment to be used.  It is recommended that 3” (8 cm) lifts be used, thereby insuring proper compaction.  Attention MUST be given to moisture content and blending for maximum distribution of STRATEZYME throughout the road material.

 STRATEZYME is used in some dust control applications.  It is applied at a dilution rate of 1 gallon STRATEZYME to 10,000 gallons of water.  This has been very effective in reducing dust and decreasing the total amount of water required for dust control.

ASPHALT COVER OVER STRATEZYME

“CHIP SEAL”

General guideline discussion only

            Refer to qualified oil-asphalt representative for further information

 Either Emulsion (CRS) or MC asphalt can be used.  “Emulsion” asphalt is cut back or diluted with water and is shot at a temperature of around 106º F (70º C).  “MC” asphalt is cut back with diesel fuel or other petroleum products and is shot at temperatures of 225º F (107º C).  The advantage of one type over the other is debatable, but generally speaking, MC asphalt will penetrate dirty gravel better than Emulsion asphalt.  However, MC asphalt has a tendency to bleed off more if the balance of oil to gravel is not correct.  When using MC asphalt, the first coat is thinner (usually MC 800), and the second coat is heavier (MC 3000).

 When applying Emulsion asphalt, use the same CSR-2 weight for both layers.  There are also available variations of CRS-2, some quick-dry; some rubberized, some hard.  Check with your supplier to see what is available in your area.  Also, when using Emulsion asphalt, you need approximately 29% more material to obtain the same asphalt thickness, to offset drying where water evaporation reduces the overall weight.

 The STRATEZYME road surface should be prepared at least three (3) or more days prior to applying the asphalt.  The surface should be smooth, hard and dry.  Dress any imperfections before applying the asphalt, as they will extend up through the finished surface.  A smooth base is essential.

 After this dries or loses its sheen, apply the oil at a rate of approximately 0.4 to 0.5 gallons of oil per square yard of surface.

 Then, immediately apply a layer of ¾” clean gravel at a rate of 120 to 125 pounds per square yard and compact with the compactor.

 After the first layer of oil and gravel has been rolled down, pull a non-rotating drag broom over the surface to smooth out any roughness cause by the chip spreader, truck or roller.  This will insure a smooth surface for the second layer.

 Lay down the second layer of .35 to .40 gallon oil/sq. yd and ½ inch of ½” to 3/8” chips and compact.  The gravel chips must be fractured rock to stay in place.  Pea gravel cannot be used.

 If you have the proper amount of oil, gravel and chips, the oil should penetrate both layers and bond together.  Too much oil will cause bleeding; too little oil will not allow proper bonding.

 

Equipment Necessary for STRATEZYME Road Application

For each road construction site this is minimum equipment to have available for the STRATEZYME application:

·        Motor grader

·        Vibratory Roller (large size, 15 ton+)

·        Pneumatic Tire Roller (recommended – 15 ton+)

·        Sheep-foot Roller (recommended – 15 ton+)

·        Water Truck with pressurized spray bar (have backup truck if possible)

·        Pulving Mixer or Rotary Hoe (RM 250)

·        2 Dump Trucks for hauling aggregates

·        Site Surveying and Staking

·        Nuclear Densometer or some type of moisture testing equipment to test the moisture on site throughout the construction process.

 

For the chip & seal, have the following minimum equipment available for each site:

 ·        Water Truck

·        Automatic Broom Sweeper (or men with rakes, brooms, etc.)

·        Dump Trucks for spreading aggregates chips.  (Have gates fitted with a spacer bar to allow aggregates to spill out slowly as truck back up over oiled area.)

·        Hot Bitumen Oil Spreader Truck

·        Vibratory Roller (medium to large size12-15 ton+)

·        Pneumatic Tire Roller (optional)

·        Automatic Chip Spreader (if available)

There should be a skilled equipment operator for each piece of equipment identified above.  In addition, if a chip spreader and/or automatic broom is not available, have 4-6 laborers available with shovels and push brooms.  Even if the chip spreader and automatic broom sweeper are available, have a minimum of 2 laborers on site.  In addition, a skilled soils/road technician should be on site as well as a road superintendent.

STRATEZYME / Water Application Guidelines

 

Water to be added to reach optimum moisture compaction

IMPORTANT:  Determine the approximate soil moisture before starting.  Estimate optimal moisture, and then subtract existing moisture to calculate water needed.

Example field calculation for 8cm lift

  Volume 8 cm x 8 Meters ------------------------------------------640 Cubic Meters

 Material Weight 640 Cu Meters x 1,600 Kg/Cu M ---------1,024,000 Kg/liters

 

Additional water needed to achieve optimum moisture

 (8% moisture x 1,024,000 liters-----------------------------------81,920 liters water

 Safety factor (avoids excess water) 70% x 81,920----------57,344 liters water

STRATEZYME (1 liter treats 33 Cu M of soil)

 Liters required =19 liters STRATEZYME

 640 Cu M road base material divided by 33 Cu M

 STRATEZYME dilution rate this example only (DRY CONDITIONS)=3,080:1 STRATEZYME

 

STRATEZYME Dilution Table – water to be added

Water to be added to reach Optimal Moisture for Compaction

Water

 

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

7%

8%

9%

10%

Water / liter / STRATEZYME

528

1056

1584

2112

2640

3168

3996

4224

4752

5280

70% safety rule

370

739

1109

1478

1848

2218

2587

2957

3326

3969

PROCEDURE

1.      Determine (estimate) water to be added to soil, then determine capacity of water truck and add STRATEZYME according to dilution rate calculation (estimate water slightly below amount needed).

 2.      Apply water and STRATEZYME to base material, wetting surfaces evenly.

 3.      Blend and mix STRATEZYME and water into soil with grader blade or recycler.  Several passes may be required using a blade.

 4.      Observe if road base material has enough moisture for compaction.  (A hand sample should make a firm ball.)

 5.      If more moisture is needed, add plain water and re-blend.

 6.      Compact material to maximum density, usually 5 to 8 passes.

 7.      Repeat step 6 for the top lift (layer).

 8.      If first lift surface is too dry, dampen with a small amount of water, before the second lift is extended across the road and compacted.

TEST METHOD

For preparing and analyzing pavement sub-grade, sub-base and base course materials containing STRATEZYME in a materials testing laboratory.

This test method protocol has been developed in response to requests for proper laboratory procedures when testing road base materials treated with STRATEZYME.  It should be noted that no laboratory sample would simulate the actual strength characteristics exhibited in the field with full-scale STRATEZYME treated base materials. Therefore, if one is to obtain a truly valid approximation of the relative strength of treated material, it is recommended to test STRATEZYME treated road base by obtaining fully cured samples from actual road-beds.  Test methods described below will reference the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).  Test methods may be found at the ASTM Internet site: http://www.astm.org/.

 1.      Preparation of Laboratory Sample

Prior to any laboratory testing, a suitable sample must be prepared.  It is recommended to prepare a minimum soil/aggregate mix of five (5) gallons (18.9 liters).  All (100%) mineral aggregate must be crushed (e.g., cracked rock faces).  That portion of aggregate passing the No. 40 sieve should be slightly plastic (0<PI<6) when tested in accordance with ASTM Method D43 I 8-9 Sa.  Any humus material and/or other organic material (i.e., roots, moss, leaves, etc.) should be removed from the test material.  The dry mineral soil/aggregate material should be uniformly graded with the gradations specified in Table 1, following ASTM Method C136-96a.

 

TABLE 1  - INITIAL TARGET GRADATIONS

Sieve Size

Ideal Gradation % Passing

Ideal Gradation

Tolerance

1”

100

0

½”

85

+/- 4

No.4

62

+/- 4

No.16

48

+/- 4

No.200

18

+/- 4

Stratezyme, Inc.

NASHVILLE

8316 Luree Lane,

Hermitage, TN 37076

Tel: 615-473-0731

Fax: 360 838-8894

 

LAS VEGAS

Tel: 702-982-3550

4620 Elm Avenue
Las Vegas, Nevada 89010

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