And Containment Structures
elements in all containment structures include Soil Stabilization and
Whether a natural
soil or synthetic liner is used, the underlying surface must be
stabilized prior to putting the liner on top. This is an area where
STRATEZYME can be very effective. It will assist in compaction,
producing greater soil strengths and reducing permeability. Once
the material has been treated and compacted, it is in a long-term
natural state that will resist degradation. NutraBond.
been specified by engineers for use in construction of a natural
soil liner (clay type with low permeability). STRATEZYME increases
soil density and decreases permeability. Construction includes compacting
the material in 6-inch (15-cm) lifts, using proper compaction equipment
and the correct amount of moisture to obtain maximum density. STRATEZYME
is a non-toxic biocatalytic multiple enzyme product.
For Waste Containment or Landfill construction, STRATEZYME
is used to assist in compacting clay containing soil into a better containment
barrier, that will meet regulatory requirements. Common to all systems
of construction waste containment structures, testing and special analysis
involving soil type and characteristics are required.
When site and pond size have been specified, soil core
samples are taken for laboratory analysis. The tests will include particle
size determination using ASTM-D-422 Method, as well as a hydrometer
test without STRATEZYME to demonstrate the condition of the soil clay
content. Laboratory permeability tests must then be run on soil samples
with and without the appropriate STRATEZYME treatment. Tests should
be conducted over a wide range of densities so compaction requirements
may be specified. If soil tests show a two-micron clay content of less
than 20%, it is often necessary to use borrow soil to achieve an adequate
clay concentration with the on-site soil.
The pond excavation can be achieved with standard earth
moving equipment used in any standard pond construction. The low-permeability
soil liner, mixed and treated with STRATEZYME, is to be compacted in
6-inch (15 cm) lifts. Total thickness is specified by the desired permeability
coefficient. The loss rate for a field liner can be predicted from laboratory
data using the following. It is often best to leave the actual mathematics
to a qualified engineer.
For Unit Area: Q = K x h/l = K x d+1/l
------- Flow rate, cm per day
K ------- Permeability coefficient under unit gradient, cm/sec
h ------- Total head in meters
l -------- Soil lining thickness in meters
d ------- Water depth in meters
h/l ------ Hydraulic gradient equals the total head (depth of water)
in meters divided by the soil lining thickness
Each 6-inch (15-cm) layer is mechanically mixed, adding
water and STRATEZYME as required. One gallon of STRATEZYME treats 165
cubic yards of material, which is diluted with sufficient water to bring
the soil-clay material close to optimum moisture. This mixing may be
done off-site or in place, whichever is most suitable. Uniform mixing
can be obtained by disking with an offset disc to a depth of 6 inches
(15 cm) or by an approved mixing method such as a blade, pulverizer
or other means available. During compaction, STRATEZYME performs several
beneficial functions. It “wets” the clay particles, thus
permitting a higher compaction density [98% to 102% of optimum density
(ASTM-D-698)]. The macromolecules in the STRATEZYME product provide
a “surfactant-like” property that aids dispersion of soil
particles and provides certain “cementation” effects.
After mixing, the material is spread over the sub-grade
or previously completed layer to the depth required to yield a 6-inch
(15-cm) compacted layer. Each layer is compacted to at least 95% as
determined by AASHTO Method T-99. The density is verified with a nuclear
moisture density meter or other laboratory test method. Compaction is
achieved with a sheepsfoot roller and the surface is worked to a smooth
finish with a rubber tire or smooth steel-wheeled roller. The final
grade should be within 1 inch (3 cm).
Upon completion of a layer of liner material, successive
layers are installed by the same procedure. Immediately prior to spreading
the treated material, the sub grade or the previous compacted layer
should be moistened to permit bonding between layers.
of the top layer, the liner is ready for use. Throughout construction
of the liner there is no concern about punctures as in the case of synthetic
liners. Also, the liner has been stabilized to the surrounding soil
and is monolithic – able to withstand a variety of environmental
conditions—temperature, settlement and load stresses. Usually
there is no overburden protective layer required, as in the case of
a synthetic plastic liner.
CONSTRUCTION OF SANITARY LANDFILLS
PONDS, SEWAGE AND LIQUID CONTAINMENT
Soil stabilization, construction techniques and materials
are the major components of any type of containment structure. Natural
clay liners are geologically stable and have longer projected life expectancy
than most man-made materials. Clay liners are self-sealing when put
under stress. STRATEZYME works well with clay soils to assist in compaction
and density. It also enhances cohesiveness and binding of soil particles.
The complexity of containment structures and ponds is
Ground water conditions
Type of material
to be contained
Water / other liquids
Combination liquid / solid materials
Mixture of inorganic and organic wastes
Anticipated level of toxicity
Engineers use well-defined specifications in their designs
of containment structures. The design and supervision insures that a
proper liner has been installed and that it will meet the intended use
over a specified time. Installation costs also play an important role
in design. Use of soil-clay liners has been very cost effective and
meets long-term design standards.
Several construction methods and materials are used
in containment structures and ponds. Liner materials include natural
clay and soil, synthetic liners, soil cement and others.
Type of construction (equipment and expertise)
Construction supervision and testing
How carefully will material be placed over the liner?
What stresses will the liner material see over time?
What unplanned event can occur to breach the liner’s integrity,
causing cracks, punctures or other liner breach?
What is the life expectancy of the synthetic liner material?
What substances might be present to degrade the synthetic material in
PONDS OR LANDFILLS
For new construction, add STRATEZYME to water as described
above. The soil ideally should have approximately 25% to 30% cohesive,
colloidal fines (200 mesh). Blade or disc the soil to blend in STRATEZYME
and water, then grade and shape. Next, compact the soil at optimum moisture
using a compactor, tractor or truck. Generally, the top 10 to 12 inches
is treated for most liners.
When an existing pond or lake is filled with water
and less than 8 feet in depth, use one gallon of STRATEZYME for every
6,000 square feet of surface area (8 gallons per surface acre). Pour
STRATEZYME into the water from the windward side and around the perimeter
or across the surface if a boat or pump can be used. Stir up the silt
from the bottom of the pond any way possible (dragging chains sometimes
works). Fines placed into suspension together with the STRATEZYME will
then migrate to the seepage areas. Do not add water for 3 days. STRATEZYME
disperses clay and colloidal materials into the voids between each grain
of soil and causes a catalytic bonding process, creating a strong, tightly
compacted stratum that resists water penetration.
Success with this
method will depend on the soil composition of your pond. If loss by
seepage does not stop within 10 to 14 days, you can let the pond dry
and re-treat using new pond construction methods described above. STRATEZYME
will not harm fish if used properly. It is most effective in sealing
the soils in ponds when at least 25% of the material contains fines
that will pass a 200-mesh screen, and the fines are primarily cohesive
PAVING, & TRANSPORTATION CONSTRUCTS
ROAD BUILDING WITH STRATEZYME CLICK
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